1 The phrase is also found in the Letter to the Ephesians, verse 5:16, at least in some versions of the New Testament.
2 Kenneth Woodward, “The Abiding Presence of the Place,” Notre Dame Magazine, Summer 2007, 27-30.
3 John Colville, The Fringes of Power. 10 Downing Street Diaries 1939-1955 (London, UK: W.W. Norton & Company, 1985).
4 This is a document that I first prepared for the students that I taught in Fall 2007. I consider it a work in progress, as something that I will revise regularly. I welcome all suggestions for improvement, including good illustrations and examples of the points that I raise.
5.My favorite version of this “victory thesis” is that of Athanasius. See his On the Incarnation, trans. by a Religious of C.S.M.V, (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1944).
6 This document, and all official Church documents cited in this paper, can be found at www.vatican.va. Here, I cite from Section 15. The first italicized portion is italicized in the original. The second two are portions that I italicized in order to stress the point about being called to transform the world.
7 Section 42.
8 Address to the faculty, University of Notre Dame, September 26, 2006.
9 The locus classicus is Nostra Aetate from the Second Vatican Council; see also the Council for Interreligious Dialogue’s Dialogue and Proclamation of 1992.
10 For samples of the critics, see John Cornwell, Hitler’s Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII (New York: Penguin Books, 2000); and Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust and Its Unfulfilled Duty of Repair (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002). For samples of defenders of Pius XII, see Ronald Rychlak, Hitler, the War, and the Pope (Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 2000), and Ralph McInerny, The Defamation of Pius XII (South Bend, IN: St. Augustine’s Press, 2001).
11 For an excellent theological analysis of the Church’s mea culpas, see the document “Memory and Reconciliation: The Church and the Faults of the Past,” published just before the Jubilee year by the International Theological Commission, a Church body that advises the Pope.
12 A great source for understanding the logic of both Realism and Liberalism is Michael Doyle, Ways of War and Peace. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997.
13 Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory 2nd ed. (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1984), p. 222.
14 Doyle, a leading international relations scholar, has written that “realism is our dominant theory,” in Ways of War and Peace, 41. A recent survey of international relations scholars in the United States
15 John Ford, S.J., “The Morality of Obliteration Bombing,” Theological Studies, V, 1944, pp. 261-309.
16 Elizabeth Anscombe, “Mr. Truman’s Degree,” in The Collected Philosophical Papers of G.E.M. Anscombe. Volume Three. Ethics, Religion and Politics, ed. G.E.M. Anscombe (Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1981), 62-71.
17 See Brian Tierney, The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law, and Church Law, 1150-1625 (Atlanta, GA: Scholar Press, 1997); and Anthony Pagden, The Fall of Natural Man: The American Indian and the Origins of Comparative Ethnology (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982). In modern papal teachings, it was Leo XIII in his Rerum Novarum of 1891 revived the notion of rights, giving it an important place in the encyclical tradition of the following century.
18 See John Rawls, The Law of Peoples (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, 1999), 98-99, Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations (New York: Basic Books, 1977).
19 In 1999, the Alan Guttmacher Institute (an organization that favors abortion rights) estimated that 46 million women have abortions every year around the world. But its numbers are disputed. Interestingly, Amnesty International, arguably the leading human rights ngo in the world, has recently endorsed at least a qualified version of abortion rights.
20 For a good account of the debate around this issue, see Jacob Heilbrunn, “Christian Rights,” The New Republic, July 8, 1997.
21 Jacques Maritain, Man and the State (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1951), Chapter Two.
22 For a picture of Pope John Paul II trying on Bono’s sunglasses, see:
23 If you want to explore the topic further, try beginning with William Bole, Drew Christiansen and Robert T. Hennemeyer, Forgiveness in International Politics: An Alternative Road to Peace (Washington, D.C.: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2004).
24 Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church (Washington, D.C.: USCCB Publishing, 2005).
25. It is in this section of the paper that I especially welcome suggestions. Let me know if you can think of examples of people that I should add.
26 See George Weigel, The Final Revolution: The Resistance Church and the Collapse of Communism (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1992).
27Samuel P. Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991), 75-85; Daniel Philpott, “The Catholic Wave,” Journal of Democracy 15, no. 2 (April 2004), 32-46.
28 Judgments here are of course selective. I have tried to include examples from a range of issues and perspectives. The limiting criterion is that their activity relates to the subject matter of peace studies and international relations.